Telephones are an important invention that have the ability to connect people all over the world. They consist of numerous pairs of copper insulated wires having a diameter that ranges from 0.3 to 0.9 and are either twisted into two or four pairs. These pairs of wires are then connected to each phone jack in your house. There are many different cables that serve different purposes and vary in configuration, size and performance. Here are the most common types of telephone cables.
1. Coaxial cable
One of the most common telephone cables is called the coaxial cable. It is called coaxial because it has one physical channel, which is an insulated layer that is a woven shield of copper. This inner layer carries the signal and is surrounded by another physical channel that is created out of a plastic sheath. The outer channel is considered the ‘ground’ where many of the pairs of coaxial tubes are placed and transmit information over a great distance. It is essential that you take proper precautions to maintain your home electrical wire to ensure they are in perfect working condition. Coaxial cables come in many different sizes and have various performance and power-handling capabilities. In addition to serving as a telecommunication connection, they can also be used to connect audio and video equipment, LAN and television networks. A few coaxial cables include twin-axial, bi-axial and RG/6 cables.
2. Twisted pair cable
Another type of telephone cable is the twisted pair cable which contains a pair of copper wires- usually colour coded – that are twisted around each other. These cables have a diametre in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 mm. In each twisted pair cable, the number of twisted pairs can vary. In most cases, the higher the number of wire pairs, the better, because it reduces the risk of cross talk and any external noise. However, it is important to note that although twisted pair cables are incredibly cost-effective when compared to other telephone cables, they have a high attenuation and low bandwidth. There are essentially two types of twisted cables:
a. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)
These twisted cables do not rely on a physical shield to block any connectivity issues or interference. This is the most common type of twisted pair cable used for both business and residential use. There are various UTPs that differ in their bandwidth as you go up the scale. Like a CAT1 scale has 1Mbps and CAT2 has a bandwidth of up to Mbps.
b. Shielded twisted pair
The second type of twisted cable is the shielded twisted pair (STP). Unlike the unshielded twisted pair (UTP), the STP blocks external interference with foil jacket. This type of twisted cable is used on a larger scale for big enterprises and high-end applications that may be exposed to environmental elements.
3. Fiber optic cables
One of the latest telephone cables out there is the fiber optic cable. Unlike traditional telephone cables that transmit data over copper wires, this cable uses optical fibers to transmit data with light rather than electricity. For added protection, each of these optical fibers has a plastic layer that is contained in a protective tube. This layer makes it resistant to external interference resulting in an incredibly fast internet connection that around 26,000 times faster than the connectivity provided by twisted pair cables. There are two types of fibre optic cables
a. Single mode fibre optic cable
This cable has a small core and only allows one mode of light to enter at any given time. This reduces the number of light reflections as they pass through the core of the cable. This allows the data to travel faster and a low attenuation rate. This type of fibre optic cable is commonly used in telecommunications.
b. Multimode fiber optic cable
This cable has a larger diameter and allows more modes of light and data to enter through its core. Since the light is more dispersed in a multi-mode cable, there is a lower attenuation rate and reduced bandwidth. The connection with a multimode fiber optic cable can only be used for communication over a short distance like telecommunications, LAN and security systems.
4. Jelly-filled telecom cable
A cable that is filled with petroleum jelly which is water resistant is a jelly filled cable. This cable is an underground cable that uses the material polythene as insulation on the conductors. The spaces between the conductors is filled with petroleum jelly. This jelly has numerous benefits, for one it prevents the entry of moisture or water from entering the core of the cable in the event that the cable is damaged. They are suitable for both hot and cold climates.
5. Ribbon cable
This cable is also known as a flat twin cable or a multi-wire planar cable and it is made of numerous insulated wires that are parallel to each other. These parallel cables are beneficial as they allow the transmission of data to occur simultaneously. These types of cables are used in interconnected network devices. Telephone lines are connected by numerous cables that come in many different types and each has its own purpose and function. Telephone cables like power cables perform the function of carrying sound signals. Each of the cables discussed above has comes with its own bandwidth and configuration so it is up to each person to decide which telephone cable will meet their needs best. It is also important to have the essential safety accessories before you wire your home. If you are looking for a brand that can provide you with high-quality, durable telephone cables, look no further. Keeping a customer-centric focus as our prime motto, Finolex provides exclusive after-sales repair and maintenance services on their wires and cables. Additionally, our well-established warranty and exchange policies makes Finolex one of the most customer-friendly electrical companies in India.